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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Published in Engineering

national academies.jpgSigned by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863, the National Academy of Sciences was formed to “investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science” for the nation, congress and federal agencies.

Considering this was the middle of the tumultuous US Civil War government saw the imperative for scientific research and collaboration. The period was also the scientific age of positivism which focused on empirical evidence, reason and logic. Since its auspicious inception, the National Academy has expanded to include Engineering and Medicine as a comprehensive, trusted organization that provides research leadership and experience to the nation.

Geographical Sciences Committee

Last week I was honored and excited to be invited as a member of the the recently reconstituted Geographic Sciences Committee (GSC) of the Board of Earth Sciences and Resources. Together with my fellow committee members we are devising a research study strategy that focused on major issues and questions faced by Federal agencies and the scientific and engineering communities.

All reports are public and you can see previous focus on community disaster resilience, land change modeling and transformative research in geographical sciences.

The GSC is also the U.S. liason to the International Geographical Union as well as advises the National Academy Foreign Secretary on matters concerning international organizations, programs, and research.

Our tenure is through 2019, so for the next three years we will hear from communities on important research questions, convene experts and meetings to discuss state-of-the-art and opportunities, and produce high-quality reports that give context and direction to future work. My particular interests align with human geography and neogeography and how we can expand the awareness and utilization of geographical sciences by other domains.

Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable

In June I also spoke at the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable hosted by Policy and Global Affairs. The meeting, “Building Smart Communities for the Future”, shared experiences of smart communities around the world.

Our panel spoke about the opportunity for smart communities to support the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals and secondary cities. These cities such as Medellin, Cusco, and Mekelle are rapidly growing and modernizing but outside the typical perspective of large-sale global cities like London and New York City. They serve as visible and innovative incubators of technology, governance and community that better represents the majority of urbanizing populations.

Increasing access to information and communications through smart phones is changing the ability for citizens active role in their government and community development. How these capabilities evolve, empower people but also raise questions or privacy, equality and opportunity are imperative to address.

I’m looking forward to our committee’s research work and future open workshops and meetings to hear from everyone on ideas for the future of geographical science.

So you want to fly spacecraft?

Published in Space

Rosetta FlightToday’s landing of a spacecraft on a comet is truly a stupendous engineering feat. ESA Rosetta spent 5 years, including three flybys of Earth and one of Mars in order to slingshot in order to land a 3-ton machine on a 4-km round rock moving at 135,000 km/hour. (meaning that the comet moves ten times it’s entire length every second)

Given the past few weeks of difficulty and failure in the always difficult engineering discipline of using high energy chemistry and physics to propel objects at (literally) astronomical speeds – the Rosetta success is particularly welcome. No one working in the field of aerospace ever thinks their tasks are easy or error-free; their missions are audacious and must be accepting of these grand failures to acheive even grander achievements.

Become a rocket scientist

If you want to try your hand at building, launching, and flying across the solar system – I highly recommend checking out Kerbal Space Program. It includes a decently accurate physics models so you can experiment with the trade-offs of spacecraft size to rocket size to fuels. Earth is a large gravity well and requires large amounts of combustible materials to reach orbit where subsequent maneuvers become relatively easier.

Kerbal vehicle

Now is where your geometry lessons come in. Rotational dynamics can be mind-bending at first, and you start becoming obsessed with energy management.

Kerbal has a vibrant community who have created hundreds of mods for additional spacecraft parts, celestial bodies, AI pilots, and atmospheric dynamics. Many of these are on Github and you could learn to build your own. If you really get into it, I recommend reading Fundamentals of Astrodynamics or Fundamentals of Space Dynamics.

So get started, intercept an asteroid, explore Jupiter, or create a space hotel. Launching your own rockets could just become quite addictive.

Sayge Rocket launch

The Future of Space Hacking

Published in Space

Photo _last one_ by shlomi yoav.pngToday is Yuri’s night where the world celebrates the first human spaceflight on April 12, 1961. Over the past 50 years we have had varied successes and advancements in our space technology. I believe that today we are on the brink of a new space revolution.

The 1960’s was the birth of modern computing. The transistor radically changed the size and cost of building digital computers. At the time, there were only a few computers in the world, they were extremely large, complicated, and you were fortunate if you could get any time on a machine. It was difficult for people to imagine the broad availability of computing. They were for precise calculations of unique problems.

Eniac Computer“I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.”
-Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943

Clearly that has dramatically altered from room-sized, multi-ton hand built machines to ubiquitous, handheld devices with more power and connectivity than was ever imagined. This access to nearly unlimited computing power revolutionized commerce, communications, and inspired entrepreneurship from garage hackers to multi-billion dollar companies that are built on ideas and code.

NASA PhoneSat

I believe that we will see the same trajectory of the space industry. Satellites have been large, expensive, and limited to a few institutions that could fund, operate and utilize them for unique problems. But that’s changing.

We’re beginning to see the advent of hobby space engineering. Startup companies inspired by the X-Prize foundation brought the attention to the public. But the revolution is quietly and methodically moving forward as the components and capability for rapidly developing and deploying satellites dramatically decreases.

NASA is testing launching off the shelf commercial Android mobile phones into orbit called Phonesat. You can now buy books on how to build your own satellite platforms from O’Reilly. UpdateAnd the government and agencies are hosting open events for the technology and science communities to collaborate on fast paced, iterative solutions such as the SpaceAppChallenge.

DIY Satellite Platforms Book Cover.jpgThere are still physical boundaries that make access to space difficult and expensive. When you need to throw something at 7.8 km per second, it is not going to be easy. Fortunately with the increase in commercial satellite activity there are opportunities to piggy back on other payloads. At $10-12k it is still expensive for a hobby. But consider that the first Apple Lisa computer cost $9,995, in 1985. That’s $22,600 in 2012 dollars.

There is a lot of childhood excitement and vision captured in our goals for the future of space. One day we will again walk on the Moon and likely on Mars and hopefully other bodies. In the meantime, I’m excited to see the new advent of an open and innovative space engineering culture.

Endeavor Shuttle Launch STS-134

Published in Space

STS-134 Flight patchI was fortunate enough to be selected to attend the #NASATweetup to see the last launch of Space Shuttle Endeavor – STS-134. Along with 150 other lucky selected people including even @dens, the Obamas, Gabi Giffords, Seth Green, Levar Burton and numerous inspiring astronauts we’ll be at the countdown clock with a front row seat the second to last launch of the entire shuttle program.

Endeavor is carrying the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer to the International Space Station that will perform some inspiring science on measuring dark matter radiation. There’s also a host of spiders, aggressive bacteria and other science experiments that will be run on the iSS. I’ll have more photos and stories up soon.

GOCE – the hidden life of a satellite

Published in Space

GOCE SpacecraftA number of years ago I worked for Astrium Space, a member of the ESA and EADS developing models and simulations of spacecraft attitude sensing and dynamics. “Attitude” meaning the orientation: roll, pitch, yaw, rates, sensors, and control algorithms.

Specifically, I worked on a revolutionary new Drag-Free and Attitude Control Subsystem, DFACS, that performs autonomous determination and control of the spacecraft’s attitude pointing, angular movements and linear and angular accelerations. You can download an article describing the system that was used for HYPER .

It was at this time, living and traveling extensively through Europe on short trips, constantly connected with a mobile phone, a cheap GPS receiver, and blogging and photo sharing that you could see the convergence and emergence of Where2.0. Fortunately the Wayback machine has my old blog “An American Engineer in Germany” recorded for posterity.

In addition, I was quite frustrated with the satellite industry. The politics and budgets that inexplicably cancel projects years, and millions of dollars/euros – or even when physics gives you a swift kick and dooms your satellite to a 30-minute flight before immediately de-orbiting. Not a rewarding way to end 10 years of hard work.

At Astrium, I was a member of the GOCE satellite team. The goal of GOCE, Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer, was to utilize a very high precision gradiometer in order to measure the magnetic characteristics of the Earth. The benefit is a highly detailed gravitational model of the Earth’s geoide which can then inform ocean circulation and sea-level models, orbital predictions, space-time drag, and more. Since the force of gravity falls off at a cubic rate inverse square from the distance to the mass, GOCE must fly at a relatively very low altitude. It therefore uses continuous ion thrusters to compensate for atmospheric drag, and another reason the DFACS is so important.

About 6 months after leaving Astrium, I had been told that the project was shelved, and never wondered about it.

Then surprisingly, while at the UNGIWG workshop in Rome last February, a director of UNOSAT told me that GOCE was in fact completed and being boxed up for shipment to the launch site! Again I didn’t track it until a couple of weeks ago, twitter showed it’s power again and Astronautics pointed out that GOCE was launching!

On March 17, GOCE launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Northern Russia. GOCE is the first of ESA’s Core Missions of the Earth Explorer programme – others including atmospheric dynamics, ice sheet thickness measurement, radiative balance, and ocean salinity.

Gravitational Constituents of g

So while the space industry can be quite frustrating, it is undeniably exciting to see something you helped build hurtling around the Earth at approximately 7,700 meters per second just 170 miles above us. GOCE is even using GPS to track its own position in space.